Sum-frequency generation vibronic spectroscopy laboratory








Surface science, catalysis, pressure and material gaps.

Nature performs catalytic reactions for the synthesis of energy vectors and organic compounds by exploiting nano-sized or single-atom photosystem and enzymatic catalytic centers, where metals (Mn, Cu, Ni, Fe…) are supported by C, S, or N linkers. Our research is focused on heterogeneous catalytic reaction mechanisms, investigated at the atomic level detail from UHV to near-ambient pressure conditions, occurring at single crystals, nanostructured surfaces, and model catalysts, with an extension to the electro-catalytic environment. The chemical, electronic, and structural properties are studied experimentally by means of surface science approaches, synchrotron radiation spectroscopies, and in situ and operando IR-Vis Sum-Frequency generation vibronic spectroscopy as implemented in the facility hosted by our lab. Fostering external collaborations, the group exploits ab initio simulations within the framework of Density Functional Theory to yield insight and proper interpretation of the experimental results.


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The Vibronic Spectroscopy Laboratory

The Laboratory was designed in 2012 and commissioned in 2013 within the framework of the MIUR FIRB2010 project RBFR10J4H7. The installed spectrometer (Ekspla) allows for IR-Vis SFG vibronic spectroscopy investigation of solid-gas, solid-liquid, and liquid-gas interfaces. An IR pulsed laser beam (50 Hz, 30 ps, 1064 nm) is converted into visible (532 nm) and tunable IR (1500-4000 cm-1) radiation that is temporally and spatially overlapped at the sample’s surface. A monochromator and a CCD detector yield scanning-mode data collection. The polarization of the beams can be selected (p and s modes).
An ultra-high vacuum (UHV) system is coupled to the spectrometer. The base pressure of 7E-11 mbar allows for standard surface science sample preparation, pre- and post-analysis. The installed instrumentation includes an ion gun (Eurovac), a gas line, LEED optics (OCI), RGA, and fast-entry lock for sample loading. The sample can be resistively heated up to 1300 K. Liquid nitrogen cooling is available. Without breaking the vacuum, the sample can be transferred into a reaction cell that is directly aligned with SFG spectrometer (5 degrees of freedom manipulator). Impinging and outgoing light is transferred through BaF2 windows. Achievable reaction conditions in the measurement cell are in the 1E-10 – 1E+3 mbar and 300 – 1000 K ranges. Up to three different gas-phase reactants can be used in parallel.

An electrolytic cell is also available for electrochemistry measurements. The setup was developed in collaboration with CNR-ICCOM and UniSalento. Measurements in situ and operando can be performed at an electrode’s surface in the -5/+5 V range at the solid-liquid interface. Electrolyte’s recycling and gas bubbling devices are available. The optical configuration includes a CaF2 prism with micro-channels for the handling of both the electrolyte and the gas bubbles.


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News and Selected Research Highlights



Research Highlights.

Learning from Nature: Charge Transfer and Carbon Dioxide Activation at Single, Biomimetic Fe Sites in Tetrapyrroles on Graphene [J. Phys. Chem. C 2019]. Nature determines selectivity and activity in biological reactive centers, based on single metal atom macrocycles, by properly tuning the primary coordination sphere and the surrounding protein scaffold. In a biomimetic approach, we show that activation of carbon dioxide at a 2D crystal of phthalocyanines supported by graphene can be controlled by chemical tuning of the position of the Dirac cones of the support through oxygen adsorption. The room temperature stabilization of the CO2−Fe chemical bond, detected in situ and confirmed by computational density-functional theory simulations, is obtained by governing the charge transfer across the graphene−metallorganic layer interface upon oxidation of graphene at close-to-ambient conditions. In this way, we can turn a weakly binding site into a strong one in an artificial structure that mimics many features of complex biological systems.


Vibrational fingerprint of localized excitons in a two-dimensional metal-organic crystal [Nature Communications 2018]. Long-lived excitons formed upon visible light absorption play an essential role in photovoltaics, photocatalysis, and even in high-density information storage. Here, we describe a self-assembled two-dimensional metal-organic crystal, composed of graphene-supported macrocycles, each hosting a single FeN4 center, where a single carbon monoxide molecule can adsorb. In this heme-like biomimetic model system, excitons are generated by visible laser light upon a spin transition associated with the layer 2D crystallinity, and are simultaneously detected via the carbon monoxide ligand stretching mode at room temperature and near-ambient pressure. The proposed mechanism is supported by the results of infrared and time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopies, and by ab initio theoretical methods, opening a path towards the handling of exciton dynamics on 2D biomimetic crystals.


 Substrate- to Laterally-Driven Self-Assembly Steered by Cu Nanoclusters: The Case of FePcs on an Ultrathin Alumina Film [ACS Nano 2018]. We show that, for the formation of a metallorganic monolayer, it is possible to artificially divert from substrate- to laterally-driven self-assembly mechanisms
by properly tailoring the corrugation of the potential energy surface of the growth template. By exploiting the capability of an ultrathin alumina film to host metallic nanoparticle seeds, we tune the symmetry of a iron phthalocyanine (FePc) two-dimensional crystal, thus showing that it is possible to switch from trans to lateral dominating interactions in the controlled growth of an organic/inorganic heterostack. Finally, by selecting the size of the metallic clusters, we can also control the FePc−metal interaction strength.


 An in situ near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of CO2 reduction at Cu in a SOE cell [J. Elechem. 2017]. The cathodic behavior of a model solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) has been studied by means of near-ambient pressure (NAP) X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy (NEXAFS), aiming at shedding light on the specific role of the metallic component in a class of cermets used as electrodes. The focus is on the surface chemistry and catalytic role of Cu, the increasingly popular metallic component in electrodes used in CO2 electrolysis and CO2/H2O co-electrolysis. The NAP-XPS and NEXAFS results, obtained in situ and operando conditions and under electrochemical control, have provided important insights about the evolution of the chemical composition of the Cu surface. We have found that in dry CO2 ambient carbon deposits are scavenged at low cathodic potential by the oxidising action of nascent O, while at high cathodic polarisations C grows due to activation of CO reduction. Instead, in CO2/H2O mixtures, surface deposit of C is steady over the whole investigated potential range. The presence of adsorbed CO has also been detected during electrolysis of CO2/H2O mixtures, while no CO is found in pure CO2 ambient.


Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Restructuring Process Induced by CO at Near Ambient Pressure: Pt Nanoclusters on Graphene/Ir(111) [ACS Nano 2017]. The adsorption of CO on Pt nanoclusters grown in a regular array on a template provided by the graphene/Ir(111) Moiré was investigated by means of infrared-visible sum frequency generation vibronic spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy from ultrahigh vacuum to near-ambient pressure, and ab initio simulations. Both terminally and bridge bonded CO species populate nonequivalent sites of the clusters, spanning from first to second-layer terraces to borders and edges, depending on the particle size and morphology and on the adsorption conditions. By combining experimental information and the results of the simulations, we observe a significant restructuring of the clusters. Additionally, above room temperature and at 0.1 mbar, Pt clusters catalyze the spillover of CO to the underlying graphene/Ir(111) interface.


Tunability of the CO adsorption energy on a Ni/Cu surface: site change and coverage effects [J. Chem. Phys. 2017]. The adsorption energy of carbon monoxide on Ni ad-islands and ultra-thin films grown on the Cu(110) surface can be finely tuned via a complex interplay among diffusion, site change mechanisms, and coverage effects. The observed features of CO desorption can be explained in terms of migration of CO molecules from Cu to Ni islands, competition between bridge and on-top adsorption sites, and repulsive lateral adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. While the CO adsorption energy on clean Cu(110) is of the order of 0.5 eV, Ni-alloying allows for its controlled, continuous tunability in the 0.98-1.15 eV range with Ni coverage. Since CO is a fundamental reactant and intermediate in many heterogeneous catalytic (electro)-conversion reactions, insight into these aspects with atomic level detail provides useful information to potentially drive applicative developments. The tunability range of the CO adsorption energy that we measure is compatible with the already observed tuning of conversion rates by Ni doping of Cu single crystal catalysts for methanol synthesis from a CO2, CO, and H2 stream under ambient pressure conditions.


Nanoscale control of metal clusters on templating supports [Elsevier]. Finite-size effects of nanometric metallic particles can be exploited to obtain tailored and novel electronic and chemical properties. At variance with traditional metal-dispersed supported heterogeneous catalysts widely employed for today’s applicative purposes, a thorough control of size, shape and alloying, together with a careful choice of the templating support, may yield to a bottom-up approach to the design of novel materials. However, challenges show up when dealing with realistic systems. Indeed, proper recipes to grow well-ordered arrays of equally-sized supported clusters are not straightforward, even if self-assembly and seeding strategies are adopted or if cluster sources are employed. In addition, with respect to model ultra-high vacuum conditions under which these systems are generally investigated, realistic working conditions require thermal stability, in order to avoid sintering effects, while interaction with an ambient pressure gas phase may influence the shape, composition, and chemical state of the nanoclusters yielding restructuring, poisoning, and deactivation. In this essay we review up-to-date experimental and theoretical approaches to investigate these issues, providing examples of selected systems, and outline a perspective direction to progressively close the material and pressure gaps for the effective transferability of modern surface science modeling to potentially applicative conditions.


 Room Temperature Carbonylation of Iron-Phthalocyanines Adsorbed on a Single Crystal Metal Surface: an in Situ SFG Investigation at Near-Ambient Pressure [J. Phys. Chem. C 2016]. We provide the experimental spectroscopic evidence for the room temperature carbonylation, at equilibrium with the carbon monoxide gas phase, of iron phthalocyanines adsorbed on the (111) termination of the iridium single crystal. The adsorption process occurs at CO pressures above the mbar yield. Interestingly, heme and heme-like catalytic, carrier, and enzymatic biomolecules interact with the gaseous reactants at partial pressures that are similar to the values that we observed on this model system, a 2D layer of single-atom metallorganic catalysts pre-assembled under ultra-high vacuum conditions. A simple Langmuir description of the adsorption mechanism yields a CO-Fe binding energy of 0.1-0.3 eV, depending on the assumptions about the pre-exponential factor. The internal vibrational structure of the adsorbed iron phthalocyanines is also investigated.

Reverse Water−Gas Shift or Sabatier Methanation on Ni(110) [JACS 2016]. The interaction of CO, CO2, CO + H2, CO2 + H2, and CO + CO2 + H2 with the nickel (110) single crystal termination has been investigated at 10−1 mbar in situ as a function of the surface temperature in the 300−525 K range by means of infrared-visible sum frequency generation (IR−vis SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and by near-ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NAP-XPS). Several stable surface species have been observed and identified. Besides atomic carbon and precursors for graphenic C phases, five nonequivalent CO species have been distinguished, evidencing the role of coadsorption effects with H and C atoms, of H-induced activation of CO, and of surface reconstruction. At low temperature, carbonate species produced by the interaction of CO2 with atomic oxygen, which stems from the dissociation of CO2 into CO + O, are found on the surface. A metastable activated CO2 − species is also detected, being at the same time a precursor state toward dissociation into CO and O in the reverse water−gas shift mechanism and a reactive species that undergoes direct conversion in the Sabatier methanation process. Finally, the stability of ethylidyne is deduced on the basis of our spectroscopic observations.

Carbon dioxide reduction on Ir(111) [PCCP 2016]. Stable hydrocarbon surface species in the carbon dioxide hydrogenation reaction on Ir(111) were identified by means of infrared-visible sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under near-ambient pressure conditions (0.1 mbar). By introducing gas phase binary and ternary mixtures of CO2, CO, and H2 into the reaction chamber, stable ethylidyne and ethynyl species were found at the metal surface above 425 K, in remarkable analogy with that observed during the ethylene decomposition process yielding graphene. In addition, upon increasing temperature (up to 600 K depending on the reaction conditions), vibrational and electronic spectroscopic fingerprints appeared that could be attributed to the nucleation of aromatic hydrocarbons at the edge of metastable graphenic clusters interacting with the metal surface.

CO on Supported Cu Nanoclusters [ACS Catal. 2015]. The interaction of carbon monoxide with an ordered array of copper nanoclusters was investigated under ultrahigh vacuum conditions by means of in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in combination with density functional theory calculations. The Cu clusters were supported on an alumina template grown on the Ni3Al(111) termination. Adsorption and dissociation of carbon monoxide occur at the copper clusters, yielding accumulation of carbidic carbon at the metal particles through the Boudouard process. The involved mechanisms are investigated at the atomic level, unveiling the effects of cluster finite size, reconstruction, support, and of local CO coverage. It is found that the high coverage of CO at the cluster surface, which considerably exceeds that achievable on single crystal surfaces, facilitates the metal restructuring and the reaction, yielding carbon incorporation into the bulk of the particles.

Reactivity of Carbon Dioxide on Nickel [J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2014]. The catalytic conversion of carbon dioxide to synthetic fuels and other valuable chemicals is an issue of global environmental and economic impact. In this report we show by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the mbar range that, on a Ni surface, the reduction of carbon dioxide is indirectly governed by the CO chemistry. While the growth of graphene and the carbide-graphene conversion can be controlled by selecting the reaction temperature, oxygen is mainly removed by CO, since oxygen reduction by hydrogen is a slow process on Ni. Even though there is still a consistent pressure gap with respect to industrial reaction conditions, the observed phenomena provide a plausible interpretation of the behavior of Ni/Cu based catalysts for CO2 conversion and account for a possible role of CO in the methanol synthesis process.


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Research Group.

- Group leader: Erik Vesselli; Associate Professor at the Physics Department, UniTs;
- Matus Stredansky; PostDoc at the Physics Department, UniTs;
- Tommaso Fontanot; PhD student in Physics, UniTs;
- Francesco Armillotta; master degree student in Physics at UniTs;

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Former students/staff.

- Enrico D'Incecco; master degree student in Physics at UniTs;
- Manuel Corva; PhD student in Nanotechnology at UniTs;
- Stefania Moro; master degree student in Physics at UniTs;
- Anita Previdi; master degree student in Physics at UniTs;
- Erika Tomsic; master degree student in Physics at UniTs;
- Matteo Rinaldi; master degree student in Physics at UniTs;
- Nicola Podda; Master thesis "Reactivity of platinum clusters investigated by means of vibronic spectroscopy and tunneling microscopy" (AA 2015-2016)
- Alberto Ferrari; Master thesis "Ab-initio investigation of reactivity, electronic and vibrational properties of iron phthalocyanines" (AA 2015-2016)
- Manuel Corva: Master thesis “CO and CO2 interaction owith iridium and iridium-supported model catalysts: a near-ambient pressure spectroscopic investigation” (AA 2014-2015)
- Giulia Leghissa: Bachelor thesis “Analisi della fase gassosa: modifica di una cella ad alta pressione per spetrtoscopia SFG” (2014-2015)
- Laura Cataldi: Bachelor thesis “Caratterizzazione del Sistema DMSO/Au(111) mediante spettroscopia vibrazionale SFG” (2013-2014)
- Mario Filiasi: PhD thesis “Applications of large deviations theory and statistical inference to financial time series” (AA 2013-2014)
- Matteo Roiaz: Master thesis “Heterogeneous catalytic reduction of CO2: SFG vibrational spectroscopy at near ambient pressure and in liquid environment” (AA 2013-2014)
- Paolo Zucchiatti: Master thesis “Discriminazione dei contributi spettrali del DNA e dell’RNA nel profilo vibrazionale infrarosso di cellule eucariotiche” (AA 2013-2014)
- Antonio Tavano: Bachelor thesis “Modello di Merton jump diffusion: analisi della convergenza e studio della funzione densità di probabilità” (AA 2012-2013)
- Enrico Monachino: Master thesis “Catalytic reduction of carbon dioxide on a nickel single crystal: an in situ investigation” (AA 2012-2013)
- Stefano Speranzon: Master thesis “Analisi ed implementazione di un modello stocastico per la valutazione quantitative del rischio di default” (AA 2012-2013)


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Institute of Materials Chemistry, Technische Universitaet Wien IMC-TUW (Vienna, A)
- CNR-ICCOM (Firenze, IT)
CNR-IOM (Trieste, IT)
Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Innovazione (Lecce, IT)
FHI Fritz Haber Institute, Department of Inorganic Chemistry (Berlin, DE)
ICTP International Center for Theoretical Physics (Trieste, IT)
Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste ScpA (Trieste; IT)
Charles University (Prague, CZ)
List SpA
ModeFinance Srl
- Automotive Lighting - Magneti Marelli


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Funding and contributors.

- UniTs through FRA projects 2012 and 2016
- Beneficentia Stiftung
- Fondazione Casali
- Consorzio dei Dipartimenti di Fisica dell’Università degli Studi di Trieste
- Università degli Studi di Trieste (progetti FRA)
- Automotive Lighting - Magneti Marelli


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Recent Relevant Publications.

M. Corva, F. Mohamed, E. Tomsic, M. Rinaldi, C. Cepek, N. Seriani, M. Peressi, and (*) E. Vesselli, “Learning from Nature: Charge Transfer and Carbon Dioxide Activation at Single, Biomimetic Fe Sites in Tetrapyrroles on Graphene”: J. Phys. Chem. C 123 (2019) 3916, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b11871.
- M. Corva, F. Mohamed, E. Tomsic, Z. Feng, T. Skala, G. Comelli, N. Seriani, M. Peressi, E. Vesselli, “Substrate- to laterally-driven self-assembly steered by Cu nanoclusters: the case of FePcs on an ultrathin alumina film”: ACS Nano 12 (2018) 10755, DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.8b05992.
- M. Corva, A. Ferrari, M. Rinaldi, Z. Feng, M. Roiaz, C. Rameshan, G. Rupprechter, R. Costantini, M. Dell’Angela, G. Pastore, G. Comelli, N. Seriani, and E. Vesselli, “Vibrational fingerprint of localized excitons in a 2D metalorganic crystal”: Nat. Commun. 9 (2018) 4703, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07190-1.
N. Podda, M. Corva, F. Mohamed, Z. Feng, C. Dri, F. Dvorak, V. Matolin, G. Comelli, M. Peressi, and E. Vesselli, "Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Restructuring Process Induced by CO at Near Ambient Pressure: Pt Nanoclusters on Graphene/Ir(111)": ACS Nano 11 (2017) 1041, DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b07876.
- E. Vesselli, M. Peressi, “Nanoscale control of metal clusters on templating supports” in “Morphologcal, compositional, and shape control of materials for catalysis”, p. 285-315, vol. 177, Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, P. Fornasiero and M. Cargnello eds., Elsevier (2017), ISBN: 9780128050903.
- B. Bozzini, M. Amati, C. Mele, A. Knop-Gericke, E. Vesselli, “An in situ near-ambient pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy study of CO2 reduction at Cu in a SOE cell”: J. Elechem. 799 (2017) 17, DOI: 10.1016/j.jelechem.2017.05.011.
- E. Vesselli, M. Rizzi, S. Furlan, X. Duan, E. Monachino, C. Dri, A. Peronio, C. Africh, P. Lacovig, A. Baldereschi, G. Comelli, and M. Peressi, “Tunability of the CO adsorption energy on a Ni/Cu surface: site change and coverage effects.”: J. Chem. Phys. 146 (2017) 224707, DOI: 10.1063/1.4985657.
- M. Corva, E. Vesselli, "Room Temperature Carbonylation of Iron-Phthalocyanines Adsorbed on a Single Crystal Metal Surface: an in Situ SFG Investigation at Near-Ambient Pressure": J. Phys. Chem. C 120 (2016) 22298, DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b05356.
- M. Roiaz, E. Monachino, C. Dri, M. Greiner, A. Knop-Gericke, R. Schlögl, G. Comelli, and E. Vesselli, “Reverse water-gas shift or Sabatier methanation on Ni(110)? Stable surface species at near-ambient pressure”: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138 (2016) 4146, DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b13366.
- M. Corva, Z. Feng, C. Dri, F. Salvador, P. Bertoch, G. Comelli, and E. Vesselli, “Carbon dioxide reduction on Ir(111): stable hydrocarbon species at near-ambient pressure”: PhysChemChemPhys 18 (2016) 6763, DOI: 10.1039/c5cp07906c.
- Z. Feng, S. Velari, A. Cossaro, C. Castellarin-Cudia, A. Verdini, E. Vesselli, C. Dri, M. Peressi, A. De Vita, and G. Comelli, “Trapping of charged gold adatoms by dimethyl sulfoxide on a gold surface”: ACS Nano 9 (2015) 8697, DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b02284.
- J.A. Olmos-Asar, Erik Vesselli, A. Baldereschi, and M. Peressi, “Towards optimal seeding for the synthesis of ordered nanoparticle arrays on alumina/Ni3Al(111)”: PhysChemChemPhys 17 (2015) 28154, DOI: 10.1039/c5cp00304k.
- B. Bozzini, M. Amati, P. Bocchetta, S. Dal Zilio, A. Knop-Gericke, E. Vesselli, and M. Kiskinova, “An in situ near-ambient pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy study of Mn polarised anodically in a cell with solid oxide electrolyte”: Electrochimica Acta 174 (2015) 532, DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2015.05.173.
- J.A. Olmos-Asar, E. Monachino, C. Dri, A. Peronio, C. Africh, P. Lacovig, G. Comelli, A. Baldereschi, N. Peressi, and E. Vesselli, “CO on supported Cu nanoclusters: coverage and finite size contributions to the formation of carbide via the Boudouard process”: ACS Catal. 5 (2015) 2719, DOI: 10.1021/cs501361h.
- J.A. Olmos-Asar, E. Vesselli, A. Baldereschi, M. Peressi, “Self-seeded nucleation of Cu nanoclusters on Al2O3/Ni3Al(111): an ab-inintio investigation”: PhysChemChemPhys 16 (2014) 23134;  DOI: 10.1039/C4CP03271C.
- M. Filiasi, G. Livan, M. Marsili, E. Vesselli, and E. Zarinelli, “On the concentration of large deviations for fat tailed distributions, with application to financial data”: J. Stat. Phys. 9 (2014) 09030, DOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/2014/09/P09030.
- M. Peressi and E. Vesselli, “Combining surface science experiments and numerical simulations”: Il Nuovo Saggiatore 30 (2014) 4.
- E. Monachino, M. Greiner, A. Knop-Gericke, R. Schlögl, C. Dri, E. Vesselli, and G. Comelli, “Reactivity of carbon dioxide on nickel: role of CO in the competing interplay between oxygen and graphene”: J. Chem. Phys. Lett. 5 (2014) 1929, DOI: 10.1021/jz5007675.
- M. Bevilacqua, J. Filippi, A. Lavacchi, A. Marchionni, H.A. Miller, W. Oberhauser, E. Vesselli, and F. Vizza, “Energy saving in the conversion of CO2 and ethanol to fuels and raw chemicals by an electrolytic device”: En. Technol. 2 (2014) 522, DOI: 10.1002/ente.201402014.
- H.A. Miller, F. Vizza, M. Bevilacqua, J. Filippi, A. Lavacchi, A. Marchionni, W. Oberhauser, S. Moneti, M. Marelli, E. Vesselli, and M. Innocenti, “Nanostructured Fe-Ag electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media”: J. Mat. Chem. A 1 (2013) 13337, DOI: 10.1039/c3ta12757e.
- E. Vesselli, E. Monachino, M. Rizzi, S. Furlan, X. Duan, C. Dri, A. Peronio, C. Africh, P. Lacovig, A. Baldereschi, G. Comelli, and M. Peressi, “Steering the chemistry of carbon oxides on a NiCu catalyst”: ACS Catal. 3 (2013) 1555, DOI: 10.1021/cs400327y.
- M. Rizzi, S. Furlan, M. Peressi, A. Baldereschi, C. Dri, A. Peronio, C. Africh, P. Lacovig, E. Vesselli, and G. Comelli, “Tailoring bimetallic alloy surface properties by kinetic control of self-diffusion processes at the nanoscale”: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 (2012) 16827, DOI: 10.1021/ja307294p.


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Last update: 04-18-2019 - 08:37